carbon dioxide problem
A clever use of available canisters, cardboard, plastic bags and duct tape resulted in a filter system that saved the astronauts’ lives. base here, the Eagle has landed. Those words uttered on July 20, 1969 by Apollo 11 astronaut https://www.georg-godorr.de Neil Armstrong punctuated what may well be regarded as humanity greatest scientific accomplishment. Just nine years earlier, President John F. Kennedy had initiated the project to a man on the moon and return him safely to the Earth before the goose outlet canada end of the decade. At the time, scientists did not know how they would accomplish this, certainly not within the framework of a few years. But ingenuity raced to the forefront and before the decade was out, the bug like lunar lander nicknamed the Eagle successfully descended to the moon surface. A few hours later, commander Armstrong made the first foray onto a heavenly body other than the Earth, uttering the famous phrase, small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind. four months after the Eagle historic landing, Intrepid, Apollo 12 lunar lander, canada goose jacket outlet made a perfect landing on the moon. canada goose outlet canada It was expected that in April of 1970, Aquarius, Apollo 13 lander, would do the same at a site designated as canada goose outlet store uk Mauro. But we were never to hear the words, Mauro Canada Goose Online here, Aquarius has landed. Instead, the world was shaken by astronaut Jack Swigert iconic words Houston, we had a problem here. Indeed, there was a problem. On the way to the moon, an oxygen tank in the service module, upon which the proper functioning of the command module depended, exploded! The oxygen was needed to combine with hydrogen in canada goose outlet online fuel cells to generate the electric power, as well as to produce water for the command module. Without the fuel cells, the command module had to rely on a small amount of stored water and on batteries for electricity. The moon landing of course had to be aborted and plans were quickly made to swing the space ship canada goose outlet Canada Goose Jackets nyc around the moon and place it on a path toward the Earth. The battery power in the command module would have to be saved for the manoeuvring needed for re entry into the Earth atmosphere.
That journey would take days, far too long for the astronauts to be able to stay in an incapacitated command module. Plans were drawn up for a transfer to the lunar lander, which would serve as a lifeboat. The Aquarius was equipped with an oxygen canada goose outlet store supply, battery power as well as food and water that canada goose coats were to have served for the time spent on the lunar surface. But it was not equipped with enough carbon dioxide scrubbers to Canada Goose Outlet last for the time that would be required to make the journey back to Earth.
Humans have canada goose outlet shop to inhale oxygen in order to allow cells to carbohydrates and fats for the production of energy. But like any other combustion of organic matter, this results in the release of carbon dioxide. While the gas is not toxic, it is heavier than air and can displace it, meaning that a significant buildup in a closed environment can lead to asphyxiation. Such a buildup can happen where the gas is formed by underground volcanic activity or by cheap canada goose uk the decomposition of limestone (calcium carbonate) and seeps into sheltered places such as caves, where it can cause animals to suffocate.
A classic example is a cave beside the Temple of Apollo in Pamukkale, Turkey. The ancient Greeks believed this was the entrance to the underworld, since no animal or man who wandered into the misty cave ever returned. Today, we have a good idea as to why. The area around the cave is permeated with subterranean hot streams. As the hot water flows over deposits of limestone, it causes it to decompose and liberate carbon dioxide. The pressure of the gas builds up, causing some of it to dissolve in the water. Sort of a natural carbonation process. Then as the carbonated water reaches the cave, the pressure is released and the gas escapes. canadian goose jacket cheap canada goose Kind of like opening a bottle of pop. The carbon dioxide then pushes the air out of the cave and anyone entering is quickly can be overcome by a lack of oxygen.
Obviously then, carbon dioxide has to be removed from the air in sealed systems like submarines or space ships. The usual method is to circulate the air through carbon dioxide that are filled with lithium hydroxide, a chemical canada goose outlet jackets that reacts with carbon dioxide gas to produce solid lithium carbonate. Engineers on the ground went to work and devised an ingenious way to use the lithium hydroxide canisters from the command module that were not compatible in shape to fit into the lunar module scrubbing system. A clever use of the available canisters, cardboard, plastic bags and duct tape resulted in a makeshift filter system that saved the astronauts lives as far as canada goose clearance breathing was concerned. But there was still the problem of jettisoning the crippled service module and the lunar lander after the astronauts had climbed back into the underpowered command module. Scientists on the ground, including canada goose outlet sale some at the University of Toronto, devised emergency procedures to do this and then waited with bated breath for a successful re entry through the atmosphere.
Re entry on a lunar mission is accompanied by a communication blackout as the tremendous heat generated by the friction of the capsule travelling through the atmosphere ionizes the air around it and prevents radio signal transmission. This normally lasts about four minutes, but the blackout during Apollo 13 re entry lasted six canada goose factory sale minutes, about 87 seconds longer than had been expected. This caused a lot of concern on the ground for fear that the explosion had damaged the capsule heat shield, which could have meant incineration for the astronauts. cheap canada goose There was great relief when radio contact was re established, canada goose outlet parka followed by a safe splashdown in the South Pacific. He hosts The Dr.