In the future, studies designed to identify cancer specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC.It is reported that dogs can be trained to distinguish breath samples of patients with lung and breast cancer from those of control volunteers and to distinguish ovarian cancer tissues from control tissues with high accuracy.Several volatile organic compounds have been identified as candidate substances for early detection of cancer using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy in the exhaled breath of patients with lung and breast cancer; while these data are promising, they are preliminary findings that should be interpreted with caution.What are the new findings?In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and controls, the sensitivity of canine scent detection of breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 0.91 and the specificity was 0.99.The sensitivity of canine scent detection of watery stool samples was 0.97 and the specificity was 0.99.The accuracy of canine scent detection was even higher for early stage cancers.Canine scent detection was not confounded by current smoking, benign colorectal disease Replica Designer Handbags, inflammatory disease or the presence of human haemoglobin or transferrin.How might it impact on clinical practice in the foreseeable future?Odour materials may become effective tools in CRC screening. In the future, studies designed to identify cancer specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC.Identification of cancer specific volatile organic compounds will lead to solving the biological character of cancer.IntroductionDespite rapid progress in examination technology and therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC), this disease constitutes a significant proportion of the global burden of cancer morbidity and mortality.1 Multiple professional organisations have recommended screening for CRC1 5 and many previous studies have demonstrated the cost effectiveness of CRC screening.6 11 Moreover, patients with familial adenomatous polyposis or Lynch syndrome are recommended to undergo frequent colonoscopy to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with CRC.12 15 Early detection and early treatment are critical for the successful treatment of cancer and are excellent means for reducing both the economic burden and mortality. CRC therefore represents an excellent example of the value of early detection.The faecal occult blood test (FOBT) is currently the most economic and non invasive screening method for CRC, and many patients with positive results subsequently undergo total colonoscopy leading to a reduced incidence and mortality of CRC.2 3 6 16 However, the positive predictive value of FOBT for CRC is approximately 10%,17 20 16 21 considering the impact of closer examination by colonoscopy or barium enema.
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